Indigenous peoples are also referred to as first peoples, First Nations, Aboriginal peoples, Native peoples, Indigenous natives, or Autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region, and who to some extent maintain the language and culture of those original peoples.
The term Indigenous was first, in its modern context, used by Europeans, who used it to differentiate the Indigenous peoples of the Americas from the European settlers, and the African Americans who were brought to the Americas due to enslavement, or who immigrated as free people. Indigenous societies range from those who have been significantly exposed to the colonizing or expansionary activities of other societies to those who as yet remain in comparative isolation from any external influence.
The tribes of Assam are divided into two groups: Scheduled Tribes (Hills) and Scheduled Tribes (Plains). Since hill tribes living in the plains and plains tribes living in the hills in large numbers are not recognised as scheduled tribes in the respective places, the census data may not reflect the correct figures.
The Assam Tribune has claimed that if these categories of tribes are counted the actual population. The Assamese language is used as the lingua franca by almost all the tribes. Various other indigenous communities of Assam were all tribes but were later attained non-tribal status through proselytization like the Ahoms, Morans, Motak, Keot(Kaibarta), Sutiya, Nath, Koch Rajbongshi etc. Several tribal groups have landed in the soils of Assam in the course of diverse directions as the territory was linked to several states and many different countries. Austro-Asiatic, Tibeto-Burmans, and Indo-Aryans had been the most important traditional groups that arrived at the site and lived in the very old Assam.
They were well-thought-out as the first inhabitants of Assam and yet at the moment they are essential elements of the "Assamese Diaspora".
Assamese Diaspora— A diaspora is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. Historically, the word diaspora was used to refer to the mass dispersion of a population from its indigenous territories. In the context of Assam, it is acknowledged as the settling land for a lot of cultures. Several tribal grouping has landed in the soils of Assam in the course of diverse directions as the territory was linked to many states and many different countries. Austro-Asiatic, Tibeto-Burmans, and Indo-Aryans had been the most important traditional groups that arrived at the site and lived in the very old Assam. They were well-thought-out as the first inhabitants of Assam.
The greater Bodo-Kachari group forms a major part of Assam encompassing 19 major tribes, both plain and hills were historically the dominant group of Assam, later the Tai Ahoms rise as the dominant group, the ethnic group along with which the Upper Assam Bodo-Kachari groups like Chutias, Morans and Borahis were associated with the term "Assamese". Along with Tai Ahoms, they were other prominent groups that ruled Assam valley during the medieval period, those belonging to the Chutia, Koch, and Dimasa communities.
The first group ruled from 1187 to 1673 in the eastern part of the state, the second group ruled Lower Assam from 1515 to 1949, while the third group ruled the southern part of Assam from the 13th century to 1854. The Bodo tribe, also known as Boro, are the dominant group in Bodoland. They speak the Bodo language. Which is one of the 22 constitutional languages of India.
Most of the indigenous Assamese communities today have been historically tribal and even the now considered non-tribal population of Assam were tribes that have slowly been converted into castes through Sanskritisation. Assam has always been a historically tribal state. Ahoms along with Chutia, Moran, Motok, and Koch are still regarded as semi-tribal groups who have nominally converted to Ekasarana Dharma even though keeping alive their tribal traditions and customs.
As per the latest development, indigenous ethnicities like Moran, Chutia, Motok, Tai Ahoms and Koch & along also non-indigenous ethnic groups like the Tea tribes have realized the above-mentioned points and have applied for ST status. This will make Assam a predominantly tribal state having wider geopolitical ramifications.
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